Mindset of different generation on migration

Mindset  of  different  generation on  migration
Keeping  in mind the  50th anniversary  of  Bangladesh in 2021, an idea  tags along  on increased attraction of  Bangladeshi  youths  towards migration. This however  can be  related to Brain Drain, a  common term we  often use  from the  colonial perspective  in the  postindustrial and postcolonized society.  Brain  drain refers to the emigration of  highly  qualified individuals from underdeveloped towards  the developed  country, formally  entering  through tertiary  education and l ater  setting  up their mindset according  to the  Western nations. This  mainly  takes place  in the form of education they  receive and the  culture  they  later try  to follow. A  data provided by UNESCO showed 57,675 Bangladeshi students are  currently  residing  in a broad for  the  year 2019.

The  motive behind this paper is to observe  the brain drain from a social perspective  rather than economical.  Few discussions have  been taken place  under this headline  though mostly  from an economic  perspective. The  reason behind ch oosing  a  social perspective  as  a  lens to view brain drain is to demonstrate how ideas towards patriotism  shift from collective  to an individual decision and what can be  the reason behind so.

An online survey  has been conducted for August 2020 where  around 300 people from various backgrounds participated. The  index  used to measure  the change  in mindset is the ‘age  of individuals’. The  age  bar  has been set up  from ‘15  to 45 and above’.  A detailed analysis  has been done  to understand their  view  related to this hypothesis  through  a  set of questionnaires. Some typical  choices have  been used to answer the  questions. 

Critical  features  of  the survey

95%  of the  participants agreed to the  hypothesis of an increased tendency  among  youths  to migrate.  The  age specific  d ata shows, there  is no  distinction towards this  agreement. The  main questionnaire  starts with ‘the  most  lucrative  job among  Bangladeshi from socio economic  perspective’.  And without any  hesitation, the most  common (70%) answer is ‘BCS/government job’, nextbeing  university  faculty, defense,  and entrepreneurship. This category  however has no  age  bar distinction among  participants’ choice.
most lucrative job among Bangladeshi
The reasons behind so can be demonstrated through the following questions where participants’ have answered the inten tion related to such decision making. Government job or BCS has limited seats, around 2500 and every year around 412,000 aspirants apply (Hossain, January 2020). Aspirants' main motive behind joining such a rigorous competitive system is achieving the ‘hig hest respect in society’ which is followed by ‘financial security’ and a fewer percentage of ‘serving motherland’. The first two category goes almost parallel, though the societal prestige category overrules from the age bar above 25.

The reasons behind BCS and government job age 15-25

demotivating  nature  towards becoming  a  researcher  and entrepreneur
The next question asked data of age bar 4555 about the demotivating nature towards becoming a researcher and entrepreneur, where overall 39% agreed to ‘lack of ‘lack of social recognition’, with fewer proper patronization’ and 36% settled to to the choice ‘ absence of proper workspace ’ .

whether would settle abroad starting  from an educational or professional journey
The opposite faces of the abovementioned professions reflect the value of social recognition while choosing a career. If we take a deeper look in the distinct age se ctors, youths from 15 agree d35 only on two factors, lack of social recognition and lack of funding. Thus economic and social factors act as the main demotivation towards starting a startup, the same reasons acting as the motivation towards government job. The “badge of proud parents’” society offers to the guardian of the BCS cadre is well known to us.

Another remarkable societal prestige is offered to the emigrants. In the participants were question where asked whether emigrants receive higher societal value in our country, 60% agreed on indifference to the age bars. Since BCS is uncertain and has limited seats, the next best alternative to obtain the badge of Respected in the society belongs to the emigra nts.

In  the above  questions, parti twist  comes in the  latter  part of  the questionnaire.

Participants have  been asked if they  would settle in Bangladesh if they  had  enough money  to be in a deve loped  country,  where  young  people (1525) answered they  would  like  to be abroad in contrast to the participants in the  age  range  above  35 (fig3  a, b). Our hypothesis thus aligns perfectly  through these  answers. Next, they  have  been asked  whether they  would settle abroad starting  from an educational/professional journey,  where  the  youngest (1525) answered positively  compared to the  other  range  bars where  the percentage  of ‘yes’ decreased with increasing  age  bars(fig  4a,b).

Asif Rahman

Siffat Bin Ayub
The last question in this set inquired data of age bar 3545 whether participants would live abroad with the same wage irrespective of the border; almost all age bars decided to b e in the homeland.

The final question called for a reason behind youths’ attraction towards living abroad. Most agreed to the option of ‘developed lifestyle’, with fewer on ‘improved education and health sector’ and very little on ‘effect of colonialism’. A deeper view demonstrates no visible distinction of choice among the different generations.

Siffat Bin Ayub


Both the agreements and disagreements among young (15 can be understood through the following logic.

The already est35) and old (above 45) populations ablished senior citizens have less interest in migration since a new beginning won’t be much effective at this stage. Also, a larger population of this generation spent their childhood in the rural part of the country to whom moving to the capital city was destination, the standard of quality life is the one they are leading.

In contrast, the younger generation is full of potential and growth, with ambitions higher than their previous. From an early age, they have been exposed to Western cultur e, through media and society, and for them, the standard of living in the West is the ultimate destination being a citizen of the developed country. This, through societal view, can be termed as an effect of colonization. An indirect effect of the Wes i.e. t has always been present in the Third world, in the postcolonial period, through the imposition of culture and knowledge.

Another important consideration is  the persuasive  nature  of family  members promoting  quality life  abroad. Since  the quality  of life became the  main reason behind migration, older  family members, not for themselves, but  their  nextgeneration push towards migration. This often initiates as higher  education possibilities and ends up being settled, status of which also weights the  social their  parents. Also, the  pride  behind holding  dual  citizenship, which many  guardians try to achieve  through their  next generation, is  not petty.


The  era  of  globalization demands international citizens and the paper  concluded a  higher portion of them belonging  to our  country.  However, there  is no  space  to judge  one’s choice  of living standards as long  as it’s  not unlawful. The  paper just showed a  picture  of increased migration but it  is impossible  to weight  the positive  and negative  impacts on  th contribute  and impede  to  a  certain extent.

A solid justification requires a more one to one personal interview of participants from various backgrounds with detailed analysis behind their choices. But the highlighted feature, society the end of the day shapes those choices, cannot be overlooked.


Hossain, Mosabber (4 January 2020), 41st BCS applications break previous records at , Prothom Alo

Author and Co-authors:
Rufaida Shafiq Aaneela
Student,Department of Development Studies
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Asif Rahman
Student,Department of Development Studies
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Siffat Bin Ayub
Student,Department of Finance and Banking
Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh.

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